What They Do: Environmental scientists and specialists use their knowledge of the natural sciences to protect the environment and human health.
Work Environment: Environmental scientists and specialists work in offices and laboratories. Some may spend time in the field gathering data and monitoring environmental conditions firsthand. Most environmental scientists and specialists work full time.
How to Become One: Environmental scientists and specialists need at least a bachelor’s degree in a natural science or science-related field for most entry-level jobs.
Salary: The median annual wage for environmental scientists and specialists is $76,530.
Job Outlook: Employment of environmental scientists and specialists is projected to grow 5 percent over the next ten years, about as fast as the average for all occupations.
Related Careers: Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of environmental scientists and specialists with similar occupations.
Following is everything you need to know about a career as an environmental scientist with lots of details. As a first step, take a look at some of the following jobs, which are real jobs with real employers. You will be able to see the very real job career requirements for employers who are actively hiring. The link will open in a new tab so that you can come back to this page to continue reading about the career:
Experience in mechanical design for space hardware, optics modeling, environmental testing, FEA modeling, thermal and thermoelastic modeling, and spacecraft…
Two- to three-week trips to Brunei every 1-2 months to install, check and maintain sensors on forest instrumentation tower.
Bachelor's degree in a related field, such as earth sciences, environmental science, civil engineering, business, communications, or related field.
Health, Safety and Environment work encompasses activities related to the environment including the broader community impacted by environmental hazards…
Research on various other environmental products will also be required. Develop customized exchange solutions for ACX clients.
Applies skill and dexterity in the sewing of tissue and non-tissue components used to produce medical devices, in keeping with regulatory and company guidelines…
Environmental scientists and specialists use their knowledge of the natural sciences to protect the environment and human health. They may clean up polluted areas, advise policymakers, or work with industry to reduce waste.
Environmental scientists and specialists typically do the following:
Environmental scientists and specialists analyze environmental problems and develop solutions to them. For example, many environmental scientists and specialists work to reclaim lands and waters that have been contaminated by pollution. Others assess the risks that new construction projects pose to the environment and make recommendations to governments and businesses on how to minimize the environmental impact of these projects. Environmental scientists and specialists may do research and provide advice on manufacturing practices, such as advising against the use of chemicals that are known to harm the environment.
The federal government and many state and local governments have regulations to ensure that there is clean air to breathe and safe water to drink, and that there are no hazardous materials in the soil. The regulations also place limits on development, particularly near sensitive ecosystems, such as wetlands. Environmental scientists and specialists who work for governments ensure that the regulations are followed. Other environmental scientists and specialists work for consulting firms that help companies comply with regulations and policies.
Some environmental scientists and specialists focus on environmental regulations that are designed to protect people's health, while others focus on regulations designed to minimize society's impact on the ecosystem. The following are examples of types of specialists:
Climate change analysts study effects on ecosystems caused by the changing climate. They may do outreach education activities and grant writing typical of scientists.
Environmental health and safety specialists study how environmental factors affect human health. They investigate potential environmental health risks. For example, they may investigate and address issues arising from soil and water contamination caused by nuclear weapons manufacturing. They also educate the public about health risks that may be present in the environment.
Environmental restoration planners assess polluted sites and determine the cost and activities necessary to clean up the area.
Industrial ecologists work with industry to increase the efficiency of their operations and thereby limit the impacts these activities have on the environment. They analyze costs and benefits of various programs, as well as their impacts on ecosystems.
Other environmental scientists and specialists perform work and receive training similar to that of other physical or life scientists, but they focus on environmental issues. For example, environmental chemists study the effects that various chemicals have on ecosystems. To illustrate, they may study how acids affect plants, animals, and people. Some areas in which they work include waste management and the remediation of contaminated soils, water, and air.
Many people with backgrounds in environmental science become postsecondary teachers or high school teachers.
Environmental scientists and specialists hold about 80,000 jobs. The largest employers of environmental scientists and specialists are as follows:
|State government, excluding education and hospitals||26%|
|Management, scientific, and technical consulting services||22%|
|Local government, excluding education and hospitals||14%|
|Federal government, excluding postal service||7%|
Environmental scientists and specialists work in offices and laboratories. Some may spend time in the field gathering data and monitoring environmental conditions firsthand, but this work is much more likely to be done by environmental science and protection technicians. Fieldwork can be physically demanding, and environmental scientists and specialists may work in all types of weather. Environmental scientists and specialists may have to travel to meet with clients or present research at conferences.
Most environmental scientists and specialists work full time. They may have to work more than 40 hours a week when working in the field.
Get the education you need: Find schools for Environmental Scientists and Specialists near you!
For most jobs, environmental scientists and specialists need at least a bachelor's degree in a natural science.
For most entry-level jobs, environmental scientists and specialists must have a bachelor's degree in environmental science or a science-related field, such as biology, chemistry, physics, geosciences, or engineering. However, a master's degree may be needed for advancement. Environmental scientists and specialists who have a doctoral degree make up a small percentage of the occupation, and this level of training typically is needed only for the relatively few postsecondary teaching and basic research positions.
A bachelor's degree in environmental science offers a broad approach to the natural sciences. Students typically take courses in biology, chemistry, geology, and physics. Students often take specialized courses in hydrology or waste management as part of their degree as well. Classes in environmental policy and regulation are also beneficial. Students who want to reach the Ph.D. level may find it advantageous to major in a more specific natural science, such as chemistry, biology, physics, or geology, rather than earn a broader environmental science degree.
Many environmental science programs include an internship, which allows students to gain practical experience. Prospective scientists also may volunteer for or participate in internships after graduation to develop skills needed for the occupation.
Students should look for classes and internships that include work in computer modeling, data analysis, and Geographic Information Systems (GISs). Students with experience in these programs will be the best prepared to enter the job market. The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) offers several programs to help students broaden their understanding of environmental sciences.
Analytical skills. Environmental scientists and specialists base their conclusions on careful analysis of scientific data. They must consider all possible methods and solutions in their analyses.
Communication skills. Environmental scientists and specialists may need to present and explain their findings to audiences of varying backgrounds and write technical reports.
Interpersonal skills. Environmental scientists and specialists typically work on teams along with scientists, engineers, and technicians. Team members must be able to work together effectively to achieve their goals.
Problem-solving skills. Environmental scientists and specialists try to find the best possible solution to problems that affect the environment and people's health.
Self-discipline. Environmental scientists and specialists may spend a lot of time working alone. They need to stay motivated and get their work done without supervision.
As environmental scientists and specialists gain experience, they earn more responsibilities and autonomy, and may supervise the work of technicians or other scientists. Eventually, they may be promoted to project leader, program manager, or some other management or research position.
Other environmental scientists and specialists go on to work as researchers or faculty at colleges and universities. For more information, see the profile on postsecondary teachers.
Environmental scientists and specialists can become Certified Hazardous Materials Managers through the Institute of Hazardous Materials Management. This certification, which must be renewed every 5 years, shows that an environmental scientist or specialist is staying current with developments relevant to the occupation's work. In addition, the Ecological Society of America offers several levels of certification for environmental scientists who wish to demonstrate their proficiency in ecology.
Environmental scientists and specialists often begin their careers as field analysts, research assistants, or environmental science and protection technicians in laboratories and offices.
Some environmental scientists and specialists begin their careers as scientists in related occupations, such as hydrology or engineering, and then move into the more interdisciplinary field of environmental science.
The median annual wage for environmental scientists and specialists is $76,530. The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $46,200, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $129,070.
The median annual wages for environmental scientists and specialists in the top industries in which they work are as follows:
|Federal government, excluding postal service||$103,530|
|Management, scientific, and technical consulting services||$75,810|
|Local government, excluding education and hospitals||$75,000|
|State government, excluding education and hospitals||$67,710|
Most environmental scientists and specialists work full time. They may have to work more than 40 hours a week if they work in the field.
Employment of environmental scientists and specialists is projected to grow 5 percent over the next ten years, about as fast as the average for all occupations.
About 7,800 openings for environmental scientists and specialists are projected each year, on average, over the decade. Many of those openings are expected to result from the need to replace workers who transfer to different occupations or exit the labor force, such as to retire.
Heightened public interest in the hazards facing the environment, as well as increasing demands placed on the environment by population growth, are projected to spur demand for environmental scientists and specialists. Many jobs will remain concentrated in state and local governments, and in industries that provide consulting services. Scientists and specialists will continue to be needed in these industries to analyze environmental problems and develop solutions that ensure communities’ health.
Businesses are expected to continue to consult with environmental scientists and specialists to help them minimize the impact their operations have on the environment. For example, environmental consultants help businesses to develop practices that minimize waste, prevent pollution, and conserve resources. Other environmental scientists and specialists are expected to be needed to help planners develop and construct buildings, utilities, and transportation systems that protect natural resources and limit damage to the land.
|Occupational Title||Employment, 2021||Projected Employment, 2031||Change, 2021-31|
|Environmental scientists and specialists, including health||80,000||83,800||5||3,800|
For more information about environmental scientists and specialists, including training, visit
American Geosciences Institute
For more information about certification as a Certified Hazardous Materials Manager, visit
Institute of Hazardous Materials Management
For more information about certification as an ecologist, visit
For information about environmental health specialists and related occupations, visit
A portion of the information on this page is used by permission of the U.S. Department of Labor.